Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint
The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia on its outside. The joint acts like a hinge but with some rotation.
The knee is a synovial joint, which means it is lined by synovium. The synovium produces fluid lubricating and nourishing the inside of the joint. Articular cartilage is the smooth surfaces at the end of the femur and tibia. It is the damage to this surface which causes arthritis.
A fracture is a condition in which there is break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals these fractures are caused from high energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident. In older people the most common cause is weak and fragile bone.
Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age. The two wedge-shape cartilage pieces present between the thighbone and the shinbone are called meniscus. They stabilize the knee joint and act as “shock absorbers”.
The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, medial and lateral compartment. The patellofemoral compartment is the compartment in the front of the knee between the knee cap and thigh bone. The medial compartment is the area on the inside portion of the knee, and the lateral compartment is the area on the outside portion of the knee joint. Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment. This malalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.
Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint
Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to look into the knee joint to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and a majority of the patient’s discharge from the hospital on the same day of surgery.
Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
Total knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts. The knee is made up of the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone), and patella (kneecap). The meniscus, the soft cartilage between the femur and tibia, serves as a cushion and helps absorb shock during motion. Arthritis (inflammation of the joints), injury, or other diseases of the joint can damage this protective layer of cartilage, causing extreme pain and difficulty in performing daily activities. Your doctor may recommend surgery if non-surgical treatment options have failed to relieve the symptoms.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately, it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.
ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.
Uni condylar Knee Replacement
Unicompartmental knee replacement is a minimally invasive surgery in which only the damaged compartment of the knee is replaced with an implant. It is also called a partial knee replacement. The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, the compartment in front of the knee between the knee cap and thigh bone, medial compartment, on the inside portion of the knee, and lateral compartment which is the area on the outside portion of the knee joint.
Quad Sparing Robotic Knee Replacement Surgery
Knee replacement is a surgical procedure that is designed to eliminate pain and improve function by eliminating knee arthritis. Surgeons have been performing knee replacement surgery for over 30 years with satisfactory results. As technology continues to evolve surgeons have sought new techniques for minimizing soft tissue disruption to decrease pain from surgery and improve results.
Outpatient Robotic Total Knee Replacement
Dr. Redmond is fellowship trained in outpatient joint replacement and robotic joint replacement. Dr. Redmond was certified in robotic partial knee replacements in 2011. He continued to utilize a robot throughout fellowship and practice at Mayo Clinic. He has published several studies and given presentations on the use of a robot for joint replacement. While at Mayo Clinic he taught other surgeons how to use this technology. Very few surgeons in this country have the experience and training that Dr. Redmond has!
Outpatient Robotic Partial Knee Replacement
Dr. Redmond is fellowship trained in outpatient joint replacement and robotic joint replacement. Dr. Redmond was certified in robotic partial knee replacements in 2011. He continued to utilize a robot throughout fellowship, and while in practice at Mayo Clinic. He has published several studies and given presentations on the use of a robot for joint replacement. While at Mayo Clinic he taught other surgeons how to use this technology. Very few surgeons in this country have the experience and training that Dr. Redmond has!
Robotic Knee Replacement (Mako) - Partial and Total
Mako Robotic-Arm Assisted Technology for partial knee replacement
We understand that making sure you know what to expect from your joint replacement experience is important to you. As you are reading through this material, if you have additional questions please reach out to us to discuss.
Each patient is unique, and can experience joint pain for different reasons. It’s important to talk to us about the reason for your knee pain so you can understand the treatment options available to you. Pain from arthritis and joint degeneration can be constant or come and go, occur with movement or after a period of rest, or be located in one spot or many parts of the body. It is common for patients to try medication and other conservative treatments to treat their knee pain. If you haven’t experienced adequate relief with those treatment options, you may be a candidate for Mako Partial Knee replacement, which may provide you with relief from your knee pain.
If you wish to be advised on the most appropriate treatment, please call to schedule an appointment or request an appointment online.